Macro Economic New Notes

Hey Guys, this is the new two chapters belongs to macro economic, Teacher Faizullah.

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Sociology Chapter 3 New

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New Macro Eco Notes

New macro notes coming soon, subscribe to the blog to be the first reader.

Virus Definition Update

New viruses appear almost everyday. Apart from installing the latest

-virus program, users are advised to use the Automatic Updates function to keep the Virus Definitions up-to-date. The Automatic Updates function is “Enabled”, by default, when you install the F-Secure Anti-Virus 7 or higher.

How to check that the Virus Definitions are up to date

  1. In System Tray (in the lower right corner of the screen) you can see F-Secure Anti-Virus icon (blue triangle). Double click it.
  2. Select Automatic Updates.
  1. The date next to the “Virus definitions updated” / “Spyware definitions updated” shows when the databases have been updated. To check if your databases are up to date, please see the date of the Latest Definition Updates on the Definition Update Page.

Manual update for FSAV 7

For FSAV 7 or above, you can update the virus definitions manually:

  1. Download fsdbupdate.exe from F-secure.
  2. Run the downloaded file “fsdbupdate.exe” on your computer.

Manual update for FSAV 5

If you still using FSAV 5.x, you can update the virus definitions manually:

  1. Download fsupdate.exe from F-secure.
  2. Run the downloaded file “fsupdate.exe” on your computer.
  3. After updated the virus definitions, you may check if the databases are up to date.

Trojan Horse is Not Virus!

Strictly speaking, a trojan horse is NOT a virus because it does not replicate like ordinary viruses do. A trojan horse is an unfriendly program which will appear to be something other than what it is, for example a program that is disguised as a legitimate software program.

Below are some common trojans:

    • Back Orifice 2000 : BO2K allows outsiders to access and modify any information on a Windows 95, 98 and NT machines through an invisible server program installed by the program. It also allows outsiders to spy on what user is doing. BO2K is expected to be released on 10/7/1999. Users are advised not to run executables from un-secured source and updates their antivirus tools periodically.
    • Details can be found at


    • Back Orifice: This trojan horse allows an intruder to monitor and tamper with Windows 95 and Windows 98 computers over the Internet. There is no easy way for a computer user to know the attack is taking place, and there is no easy way to stop the attack once Back Orifice has installed itself on the computer. The ver 1.2 of Back Orifice cannot be installed on Windows NT system.


  • NetBus: NetBus is a remote administration tool, much like the infamous Back Orifice tool. However, Netbus predates Back Orifice by several months and is also capable of working under Windows NT in addition to Windows 95 and 98.

Do not pass on Virus Hoaxes

Although there are thousands of viruses discovered each year, there are still some that only exist in the imaginations of the public and the press – known as virus hoaxes. These viruses hoaxes DO NOT EXIST, despite rumor of their creation and distribution.

Please ignore any messages regarding these supposed “viruses” and DO NOT pass on any messages about them. Send them to ITSC to be dealt with. Passing on messages about these hoaxes only serves to further propagate them.

The following web sites provide very good information on virus hoaxes:

Types of Viruses

There are many types of computer viruses:

    • File virus : Most viruses fall into this category. A virus attaches itself to a file, usually a program file.


    • Boot sector virus : These viruses infect floppy and hard drives. The virus program will load first, before the operating system.


    • Macro Virus : This is a new type of virus that use an application’s own macro programming feature to distribute themselves. Unlike other viruses, macro viruses do not infect programs; they infect documents.


  • Virus Hoax : Although there are thousands of viruses discovered each year, there are still some that only exist in the imaginations of the public and the press – known as virus hoaxes. These viruses hoaxes DO NOT EXIST, despite rumor of their creation and distribution.

Virus Detection on Email Server

Virus Detection on Email Server

The spread of computer virus via email is getting common nowadays. This kind of virus (or sometimes called “worm”), usually disguised in the form of an email attachment, contains malicious codes that would get executed when a user opens it. Worse still, such virus-containing emails would not only come from unknown or suspicious sources, but also apparently from friends or colleagues, mainly because their machines had been infected already.

To protect known computer virus coming from the Internet, ITSC has installed a commercial virus detection software: Sophos Anti-Virus onto our email firewall.

Virus Detection

  • Incoming Mail

    With virus detection on email server, incoming messages detected with known viruses will be rejected automatically and the sender will be notified (receive a bounce back message). It is expected that the risk of those notorious email viruses like “Sobig” and “Klez” would be significantly minimized.

  • Outgoing Mail

    There might have cases that user do not aware any of their documents were infected (e.g. user’s machine is not equipped with up to date anti-virus tools) and send to others as mail attachment. With the latest virus detection feature, the outgoing mail would not be delivered and user shall receive a bounce back undelivered message e.g. virus “<name of the virus>” found.

Is it 100% safe?

Most of the known viruses should be detected with the anti-virus software on email server (or any anti-virus tools installed on your desktop computer), however there is always a risk of new viruses going undetected. The following precautions are advised:

  1. Be very careful when handling email attachments.
  2. Update the Virus Definition Database on your computer on a regular basis.
  3. Outlook users are advised to apply the critical security updates of Windows Updates.

More Information

More information about anti-virus in campus can be found at our web site Anti-Virus in Campus.