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Business Law – By: Sir Halim

Business Law Class Lectures – By: Sir Halim

 

Salaam University – 5th Semester.

 

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Best mobile phones to buy in 2013

Smartphones have never been bigger. Soon enough every pocket will have a mini-computer, and the sheer variety of smartphones out there means there’s something for everyone, at almost any budget.

Once you’ve used a smartphone every day, you’ll never look back. Here’s our pick of the bunch, from Android

 

Samsung Galaxy S4

One of the best smartphones just got better
Samsung Galaxy S4

 

Our Expert Opinion

The Galaxy S4 is the update to the Galaxy S3, our favourite Android smartphone for the last year. It’s possibly the most hyped phone of all time, but thankfully it’s still an impressive handset.

Despite the phone’s huge 5in screen, it manages to be slim and light, and weighs just 130g. It’s the first phone to use an AMOLED screen with a Full HD resolution, which gives it a huge pixels-per-inch figure of 441, up from 306ppi on its predecessor. The operating system and web pages are, as you’d expect, hyper-sharp.

The S4 uses the same Qualcomm chipset as the HTC One, but it’s clocked at 1.9GHz rather than 1.7GHz. The phone is awesomely fast in both everyday apps and running 3D benchmarks. Despite all this power, the S4’s 2,600mAh battery managed to keep it running for ten hours and 43 minutes when playing back video, which is one of the most impressive figures we’ve seen.

The S4 is a lot of smartphone for your money. It’s a relatively conservative design, yet has a bigger screen and battery than the HTC One in a smaller package. You may prefer the HTC One’s metal body, but if you don’t get on with HTC’s extensive operating system tweaks, the Galaxy S4 is the phone for you.

Read our full Samsung Galaxy S4 review

SPECS
OPERATING SYSTEM Android 4.2.2
PROCESSOR SPEED 1.9GHz
NUMBER OF CORES 4
RAM 2GB
MOBILE DATA GPRS, EDGE, HSDPA, LTE
DISPLAY 5in 1,920×1,080 LCD
CAMERA 13-megapixel
INTERNAL STORAGE 16GB
MEMORY CARD SLOT microSD
CLAIMED BATTERY LIFE 17 hours talktime, 15 days standby
DIMENSIONS 137x70x7.9mm, 130g

BUY IT FROM Free on a £27-per-month contract from www.mobiles.co.uk

 

Motorola RAZR HD

A great alternative to Samsung’s Galaxy S3
Motorola RAZR HD

 

Our Expert Opinion

The RAZR HD is a powerful and good-looking Android phone with a huge battery, and it’s also good value on contract.

We liked the Kevlar back panel, splashproof coating and scratch-resistant Gorilla Glass screen, and the large 2,530mAh battery meant the phone managed a huge 14 hours in our video playback test.

The phone’s 4.7in screen is an AMOLED model with a 1,280×720-pixel resolution, and is just as impressive as that of the Samsung Galaxy S3.

The phone is also 4G-compatible if you fancy a bit of super-fast data – the only let-down is its uninspiring camera.

Read our full Motorola RAZR HD review

SPECS
OPERATING SYSTEM Android 4.1.2 (JellyBean)
PROCESSOR SPEED 1.5GHz
NUMBER OF CORES 2
RAM 1GB
MOBILE DATA GPRS, EDGE, HSDPA, HSUPA, LTE
DISPLAY 4.7in 720×1,280 LCD
CAMERA 8-megapixel
INTERNAL STORAGE 16384MB
MEMORY CARD SLOT microSD
DIMENSIONS 68x132x8.4mm, 146g

BUY IT FROM £40 on a £17-per-month contract from www.buymobiles.net

 

HTC One

The ultimate next-gen smartphone
HTC One

 

Now that the Samsung Galaxy S4 is here, the HTC One finally has some stiff competition, but it still holds its head up high. The phone has a gorgeous metal body and high-contrast 4.7in Full HD display, which is perfect for browsing web pages at full zoom.

The phone feels gorgeous in the hand, and the display’s vibrant colours makes using Android 4.1 a pleasure. The HTC One is fast, too, thanks to its quad-core 1.7GHz processor.

Beautiful design aside, the One stands out from other Full HD Android phones such as the Sony Xperia Z due to its far-reaching software modifications. Instead of being full of icons and widgets, by default the homescreen is an information feed, with chunky tiles displaying the latest information from news and social media feeds.

If you’d prefer the standard Android homescreens instead, you can always shuffle around the order so the news feed isn’t the first thing you see. If you like your phones to have a gorgeous design this is the handset to buy, but the Samsung Galaxy S4 has a larger screen and longer battery life, as well as less extensive operating system tweaks.

Read our HTC One review

SPECS
OPERATING SYSTEM Android 4.1 (JellyBean)
PROCESSOR SPEED 1.7GHz
NUMBER OF CORES 4
RAM 2GB
MOBILE DATA LTE
DISPLAY 4.7in 1,920×1,080 LCD
CAMERA 4.1-megapixel
INTERNAL STORAGE 32GB
MEMORY CARD SLOT none
DIMENSIONS 137x68x9mm, 143g

BUY IT FROM Free on £30-per-month contract from www.affordablemobiles.co.uk

Samsung Galaxy S3
No longer the best Android smartphone, but still great value
Samsung Galaxy S3 LTE

 

Our Expert Opinion The Samsung Galaxy S3 is no longer the best Android smartphone there is and has been superseded by the S4, but it’s still slim, fast, has a beautiful AMOLED screen and is now available at a very reasonable price.

The phone has just got better, too, thanks to an upgrade to support 4G. On Everything Everywhere’s network we saw speeds up to 25Mbit/s, which is twice as quick as many home broadband connections. However, if you want 4G be sure to get the LTE version of the handset, as there’s still a lot of 3G-only ones on sale and only these are available as part of the cheapest offers

Samsung has loaded the phone with clever features. If you bring the phone to your ear while a contact is on screen it will call that person automatically, if you flip the phone over while it’s ringing it will turn the ringer off, and the Smart Stay feature uses the front camera to keep the screen on while you’re looking at it.

Throw in an excellent camera and you’ve got all the ingredients for a brilliant smartphone, which is now available for a very reasonable price.

Read our full Samsung Galaxy S3 review

SPECS
OPERATING SYSTEM Android 4.1
PROCESSOR SPEED 1.4GHz
NUMBER OF CORES 4
RAM 2GB
MOBILE DATA GPRS, EDGE, 3G, HSDPA, (4G optional)
DISPLAY 4.8in 720×1,280 LCD
CAMERA 8-megapixel
INTERNAL STORAGE 16GB
MEMORY CARD SLOT microSD
DIMENSIONS 137x71x9mm, 133g

BUY IT FROM Free on a £22-per-month contract from phone-shop.tesco.com

 

Google Nexus 4

Google’s cut-price Android 4.2 wonder
Google Nexus 4

 

Our Expert Opinion The latest Google-branded smartphone is made by LG, and it’s a stormer. The Nexus 4’s quad-core 1.5GHz processor runs Android 4.2 incredibly quickly, and its 4.7in 1,280×768 display has a similar pixel density to the iPhone 5’s Retina screen.

There’s also a high-quality 8-megapixel camera and built-in NFC, so the phone will support Google Wallet’s tap-and-pay service when it arrives in the UK.

The phone is also incredibly good value SIM-free at just £239 – it’s a lot of phone for the money.

Read our full Google Nexus 4 review

SPECS
OPERATING SYSTEM Android 4.2
PROCESSOR SPEED 1.5GHz
NUMBER OF CORES 4
RAM 2GB
MOBILE DATA GPRS, EDGE, HSDPA, HSUPA
DISPLAY 4.7in 768×1,280 LCD
CAMERA 8-megapixel
INTERNAL STORAGE 8GB
MEMORY CARD SLOT none
CLAIMED BATTERY LIFE 15 hours talktime, 16 days standby
DIMENSIONS 134x69x9.1mm, 139g

BUY IT FROM £239 from Google Play

 

Apple iPhone 5

A worthy update to the iPhone
Apple iPhone 5

 

Our Expert Opinion Five generations on, and the iPhone is still the model to beat. Android has taken great strides, but iOS is still the slickest, fastest and easiest to use operating system, and there’s no arguing with the quality of the apps in the Apple App Store.

The iPhone 5 is an evolution of the 4, with a longer screen for more room for app icons and an aspect ratio better suited to widescreen films. It’s also incredibly quick – more than twice as fast as the iPhone 4S in the Sunspider JavaScript benchmark.

The only thing stopping the iPhone 5 from getting an award is Apple’s horrendous new Maps app, which replaces Google Maps, but this should improve with time.

Read our full Apple iPhone 5 review

SPECS
OPERATING SYSTEM iOS 6
PROCESSOR SPEED 1GHz
NUMBER OF CORES 2
RAM 1GB
MOBILE DATA 4G
DISPLAY 4in 1,136×640 LCD
CAMERA 8-megapixel
INTERNAL STORAGE 16GB
MEMORY CARD SLOT none
DIMENSIONS 124x59x8mm, 112g

BUY IT FROM £529 from the Apple Store

 

Motorola RAZR i

A gorgeous slimline Intel phone 
Motorola RAZRi

 

Our Expert Opinion The RAZR i has an Intel rather than ARM processor, and it’s seriously quick – around the same speed as the iPhone 5 in the Sunspider JavaScript benchmark. It runs Android 4.1 incredibly smoothly, and the operating system looks great on the phone’s 960×540-pixel Super AMOLED screen.

The RAZR i has a 4.3in screen, which is big considering how compact the phone is. It’s also incredibly slim, and the rubberised back looks great and makes the phone comfortable to hold.

It’s a classy handset all round, and is also remarkably good value on contract.

Read our full Motorola RAZR i review

SPECS
OPERATING SYSTEM Android 4.1
PROCESSOR SPEED 2GHz
NUMBER OF CORES 1
RAM 1GB
MOBILE DATA GPRS, EDGE, 3G, HSDPA
DISPLAY 4.3in 960×540 LCD
CAMERA 8-megapixel
INTERNAL STORAGE 8GB
MEMORY CARD SLOT microSD
DIMENSIONS 123x61x8mm, 126g

BUY IT FROM Free on £21-per-month contract from www.carphonewarehouse.com

 

Nokia Lumia 925

The best Windows Phone 8 handset there is
Nokia Lumia 925

 

Our Expert Opinion The Lumia 925 is an update to the Lumia 920, our previous favourite Windows Phone 8 handset.

It addresses some of the criticisms levelled at the 920, such as its heavy 185g weight. The Lumia 925 cuts that back by 46g, at the same time as shaving 2mm from the phone’s thickness.

Instead of being a solid lump of polycarbonate like the 920, the Lumia 925 is split into a plastic rear and a metal frame; we’re fans of the frame, as we feel it makes the phone comfortable to hold.

The 925 has a 4.5in AMOLED display with a 1,280×768 resolution. It’s not a Full HD screen as found on much of the competition, but it still has an impressive pixel density of 332 pixels per inch, which compares well to the iPhone 5’s 326ppi. Image quality is excellent, too, with deep blacks and beautifully saturated colours.

Like the Lumia 920, the Lumia 925 has a dual-core 1.5GHz processor and 1GB RAM. This is enough to run Windows Phone 8 beautifully, and the 925 comes with some useful preinstalled maps, such as free offline navigation and music. If you’re after a Windows Phone 8 handset, this is the one to have.

Read our full Nokia Lumia 925 review

SPECS
OPERATING SYSTEM Windows Phone 8
PROCESSOR SPEED 1.5GHz
NUMBER OF CORES 2
RAM 1GB
MOBILE DATA HSDPA
DISPLAY 4.5in 1,280×768 LCD
CAMERA 8.7-megapixel
INTERNAL STORAGE 32GB
MEMORY CARD SLOT none
CLAIMED BATTERY LIFE 18 hours talktime, 18 days standby
DIMENSIONS 129x71x9mm, 139g

BUY IT FROM Free on £26-per-month contract from www.mobiles.co.uk

 

Sony Xperia L

A whole lot of Android phone for your money
Sony Xperia L

 

Our Expert Opinion The mid-range Xperia L may be quite expensive on contract, but it’s a steal SIM-free at less than £200.

The phone has a 1GHz dual-core processor and 1GB RAM, and runs Android 4.1 smoothly. Sony’s subtle Android customisations looks great, apps open and shut with a snap and animations are silky smooth.

The Xperia L also has an impressive screen, with bright whites and punchy colours, and we even like its chunky design and pleasing rubberised finish.

Read our full Sony Xperia L review

SPECS
OPERATING SYSTEM Android 4.1.2 (JellyBean)
PROCESSOR SPEED 1GHz
NUMBER OF CORES 2
RAM 1GB
MOBILE DATA HSDPA
DISPLAY 4.3in 854×480 LCD
CAMERA 8-megapixel
INTERNAL STORAGE 8GB
MEMORY CARD SLOT microSD
CLAIMED BATTERY LIFE 8 hours talktime, 498 days standby
DIMENSIONS 129x65x10mm, 137g
PART CODE Xperia L
DETAILS www.sonymobile.co.uk

BUY IT FROM £199 from www.ebuyer.com

Microsoft swallows Nokia’s phone business for $7.2 billion

(Reuters) – Microsoft Corp will buy Nokia’s phonebusiness and license its patents for 5.44 billion euros ($7.2 billion), a bold foray into mobile devices that also brings potential chief executive contender Stephen Elop back into the fold.

Two years after hitching its fate to Microsoft’s Windows Phone software, the Finnish phone maker that once dominated the global market collapsed into the arms of the U.S. software giant, its mobile business ravaged by nimbler rivals Apple Inc and Samsung Electronics.

Shares in Microsoft slid as much as 6 percent in the afternoon, lopping more than $15 billion off the company’s market value, as investors protested the acquisition of an underperforming and marginalized corporation that lost more than $4 billion in 2012.

Retiring CEO Steve Ballmer is trying to remake Microsoft into a gadget and services company like Apple, a move that has not won the endorsement of all shareholders.

Nokia CEO Elop, who ran Microsoft’s business software division before jumping ship in 2010, will return to the U.S. firm to head up its mobile devices business just as the company’s board considers a successor to Ballmer, who announced last week he will retire within a year.

Elop, who presided over Nokia’s market share collapse and a shriveling share price during his three years at the helm, is being discussed as a potential replacement because he remains respected and is considered one of the few who can fully grasp Microsoft’s sprawling empire.

But disgruntled Finnish media labeled him a Trojan horse who handed over the keys to one of the few remaining European technology powers. Nokia, whose market value topped $200 billion over a decade ago, will now concentrate on its networking equipment unit, navigation business and technology patents.

The Nokia deal thrusts Microsoft deeper into the hotly contested mobile phone market, despite some investors urging it to stick to its core strengths of business software and services. Activist fund manager ValueAct Capital Management, which has been offered a board seat, is among those concerned with Ballmer’s leadership and his attempts to plough headlong into the lower-margin, highly competitive mobile devices arena.

“Adding to the cost structure when shareholders may be looking for steps in the other direction is not likely to be well received…,” said Nomura analyst Rick Sherlund. “Perhaps a decision to repurchase stock and up the dividend would be a good idea right about now.”

Others applauded Ballmer’s aggressive gambit.

“Microsoft cannot walk away from smartphones, and the hope that other vendors will support Windows Phone is fading fast. So buying Nokia comes at the right time,” said Carolina Milanesi, an analyst at Gartner.

“In today’s market it is clear that a vertical integration is the way forward for a company to succeed. How else could Microsoft achieve this?”

As part of Microsoft, Elop will head an expanded Devices unit. Julie Larson-Green, who in July was promoted to head a new Devices and Studios business in Ballmer’s reorganisation, will report to Elop when the deal is closed.

CRUNCH TIME

It is a pivotal moment for Microsoft, which still has huge revenues from its Windows operating system, Office suite of business software and Xbox game console, but has failed so far to set up a profitable mobile device business.

Microsoft’s own mobile gadget, the Surface tablet, has sold tepidly since it was launched last year.

“We think we have made excellent, excellent progress with the partnership and yet we also know we have a long way go and felt on balance that together this is the best approach for both companies’ shareholders,” Ballmer told Wall Street analysts in a conference call to explain the deal early on Tuesday.

Microsoft said it would make more than $40 profit on each smartphone it sells once it owns the Nokia business, as opposed to less than $10 now, due to development and marketing costs it pays to Nokia.

However, it said the business would not be fully profitable until fiscal year 2016, and needs to sell more than 50 million smartphones a year to break even. Last quarter, Nokia sold 7.4 million smartphones.

The deal leaves the Finnish company with Nokia Solutions and Networks, which competes with the likes of Ericsson and Huawei in telecoms equipment, as well as a navigation business and a broad portfolio of patents.

In 2011, after writing a memo that said Nokia lacked the in-house technology and needed to jump off a “burning platform”, Elop made the controversial decision to use Microsoft’s Windows Phone for smartphones, rather than Nokia’s own software or Google Inc’s ubiquitous Android operating system.

Nokia, which had 40 percent of the handset market in 2007, now has just 15 percent, and only 3 percent in smartphones.

Shares in Nokia surged 34 percent to close at 3.97 euros by late Tuesday. While up from their decade-low of 1.33 euros hit last year, they are still only a fraction of their 2000 peak of 65 euros.

After today’s gains the whole company is worth about 15 billion euros, a far cry from its glory days when it reached over 200 billion euros.

Tuesday’s deal includes an agreement to license Nokia’s patent portfolio for 10 years. Without it, Nokia’s devices and services business would have been worth about 3.7 billion euros, the companies said.

“It’s very clear to me that rationally this is the right step going forward,” Elop told reporters, though he added he also felt “a great deal of sadness” over the outcome. “I feel sadness because inevitably we are changing Nokia and what it stands for.”

SOLD FOR “PEANUTS”

While some investors credit Elop for bringing urgency to Nokia, which has stepped up its pace of product development in recent months and is due to announce a “phablet” large-screen handset this month, his legacy will be a bitter one for Finland. The company, which began life as a paper mill and has sold an eclectic range of products from television sets to rubber boots in its 148-year history, was a national champion in its heyday, accounting for 16 percent of all exports.

Hired by former chairman Jorma Ollila, Elop was Nokia’s first foreign CEO.

For many Finns, the fact that a former Microsoft executive had come to Nokia, bet the firm’s future on an alliance with Microsoft, laid off about 40,000 worldwide and then delivered it into the software giant’s hands, was a galling snub to national pride.

“Jorma Ollila brought a Trojan horse to Nokia,” a column in widely read tabloid Ilta-Sanoma said.

“As a Finnish person, I cannot like this deal. It ends one chapter in this Nokia story,” said Juha Varis, Danske Capital’s senior portfolio manager, whose fund owns Nokia shares. “On the other hand, it was maybe the last opportunity to sell it.”

Varis was one of many investors critical of Elop’s decision to bet Nokia’s future in smartphones on Microsoft’s Windows Phone software, which was praised by tech reviewers but hasn’t found the momentum to challenge the market leaders.

“So this is the outcome: the whole business for 5 billion euros. That’s peanuts compared to its history,” he said.

Alexander Stubb, Finland’s Minister for European Affairs and Foreign Trade, said on his Twitter account: “For a lot of us Finns, including myself, Nokia phones are part of what we grew up with. Many first reactions to the deal will be emotional.”

Nokia’s new interim CEO Risto Siilasmaa painted a picture of just how grudgingly the call to sell had been arrived at, describing how the board had met almost 50 times after the approach by Microsoft around February.

Ballmer, at a news conference in the Finnish capital, sought to assuage fears the deal would hit jobs in the Nordic country and said Microsoft would build on the recent growth of Nokia’s flagship Lumia smartphones.

Nokia said it expected around 32,000 people of its roughly 90,000 staff to transfer to Microsoft, including about 4,700 who will transfer in Finland.

FIRE SALE

Analyst Tero Kuittinen at consultancy Alekstra said the sale price of Nokia’s phone business, about a quarter of its sales last year, represented a “fire sale level.” Others were less clear about what a shrunken Nokia was worth.

The price agreed for the devices and services business gives it an enterprise value of about 0.33 times sales for a loss-making business, about half what Google paid for Motorola’s handset business in 2012.

“What should be paid for a declining business, where market share has been constantly lost and profitability has been poor?” said Hannu Rauhala, analyst at Pohjola Bank. “It is difficult to say if it’s cheap or expensive.”

Nokia remains the world’s No. 2 mobile phone maker behind Samsung, but it is not in the top five in the more lucrative and faster-growing smartphone market.

Sales of Nokia’s Lumia phones have helped the market share of Windows Phones in the global market climb to 3.3 percent, according to consultancy Gartner, overtaking ailing BlackBerry Ltd for the first time this year. Still, Google’s Android and Apple’s iOS make up 90 percent of the market.

Credit default swap spreads on Nokia tightened by more than 30 basis points to around 200 basis points after the news, meaning it now costs $200,000 to insure $10 million worth of Nokia debt, which is rated junk due to worries about its shrinking cash position and market share.

Nokia said it expected that senior executives Jo Harlow, Juha Putkiranta, Timo Toikkanen, and Chris Weber would transfer to Microsoft when the deal is concluded, probably in the first quarter of 2014.

Goldman Sachs acted as financial advisor to Microsoft, while JP Morgan advised Nokia, according to people close to the deal. Law firm Simpson Thacher represented Microsoft, while Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom represented Nokia, they said.

($1 = 0.7582 euros)

(Additional reporting by Terhi Kinnunen, Jussi Rosendahl and Niklas Pollard; Editing by Peter Graff, Will Waterman and Tim Dobbyn)