Entries by masror

Comparison of OSI Reference Model and TCP/IP Reference Model

Following are some major differences between OSI Reference Model and TCP/IP Reference Model, with diagrammatic comparison below. OSI(Open System Interconnection) TCP/IP(Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) 1. OSI is a generic, protocol independent standard, acting as a communication gateway between the network and end user. 1. TCP/IP model is based on standard protocols around which […]

The TCP/IP Reference Model

TCP/IP means Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol. It is the network model used in the current Internet architecture as well. Protocols are set of rules which govern every possible communication over a network. These protocols describe the movement of data between the source and destination or the internet. These protocols offer simple naming and […]

Application Layer – OSI Model

It is the top most layer of OSI Model. Manipulation of data (information) in various ways is done in this layer which enables user or software to get access to the network. Some services provided by this layer includes: E-Mail, transferring of files, distributing the results to user, directory services, network resource etc.   FUNCTIONS […]

Presentation Layer – OSI Model

The primary goal of this layer is to take care of the syntax and semantics of the information exchanged between two communicating systems. Presentation layer takes care that the data is sent in such a way that the receiver will understand the information (data) and will be able to use the data. Languages (syntax) can […]

Session Layer – OSI Model

Its main aim is to establish, maintain and synchronize the interaction between communicating systems. Session layer manages and synchronize the conversation between two different applications. Transfer of data from one destination to another session layer streams of data are marked and are resynchronized properly, so that the ends of the messages are not cut prematurely […]

Transport Layer – OSI Model

The main aim of transport layer is to be delivered the entire message from source to destination. Transport layer ensures whole message arrives intact and in order, ensuring both error control and flow control at the source to destination level. It decides if data transmission should be on parallel path or single path Transport layer […]

Network Layer – OSI Model

The main aim of this layer is to deliver packets from source to destination across multiple links (networks). If two computers (system) are connected on the same link then there is no need for a network layer. It routes the signal through different channels to the other end and acts as a network controller. It […]

DATA LINK Layer – OSI Model

Data link layer is most reliable node to node delivery of data. It forms frames from the packets that are received from network layer and gives it to physical layer. It also synchronizes the information which is to be transmitted over the data. Error controlling is easily done. The encoded data are then passed to […]

PHYSICAL Layer – OSI Model

Physical layer is the lowest layer of all. It is responsible for sending bits from one computer to another. This layer is not concerned with the meaning of the bits and deals with the physical connection to the network and with transmission and reception of signals. This layer defines electrical and physical details represented as […]

ISO/OSI Model in Communication Networks

There are n numbers of users who use computer network and are located over the world. So to ensure, national and worldwide data communication, systems must be developed which are compatible to communicate with each other. ISO has developed this. ISO stands for International organization of Standardization. This is called a model for Open System […]